“Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration.”
Unlike most U.S. Presidents, Abraham Lincoln faced economic hardship as a child. His father had been a prosperous Kentucky landowner, but young Abraham, at the tender age of 7, watched his family lands taken away due to a legal technicality. Having resettled in Indiana, he was able to study briefly and sporadically under a series of traveling teachers. Even so, the bulk of his learning was a function of self-education. Over time, he grew into a strong laborer. He did not take every job on offer, but he was often quick to trade his services for the loan of books he had not previously read.
When he was 21, his family relocated once more, to the state he would consider his true home — Illinois. He soon obtained a loan in order to join a partnership running a mill and general store in New Salem. Contemporary accounts depict him as an able shopkeeper, but the store did not prosper, and he had to leave the business. When a battle-hardened Native American known as Black Hawk rallied hundreds of warriors to reclaim his ancestral homeland on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, Abraham Lincoln remedied his unemployment by volunteering for the Illinois militia. He was particularly honored to have been elected captain of his militia company.
Though young Lincoln did not engage in actual combat, he repeatedly arrived in the aftermath of a clash and undertook the duty of burying the dead. He would learn much about the costs of war even without experiencing the heat of battle. He would re-enlist several times, accepting the role of an ordinary private, as his units would be mustered out of service. He was awarded a land grant for his efforts, though perhaps more valuable were the many new friendships that would prove assets during the start of his political career. His time in the militia spanned less than four months. A horse theft on the eve of its conclusion would afford him ample time for reflection as he walked much of the distance from northwest Illinois back to his New Salem home.
Soon after, Abraham Lincoln turned the full force of his energies to politics and the law. His 1834 bid for a place in the Illinois General Assembly would be his second run for political office and his first campaign victory. He was the second youngest in a particularly young class of legislators. Here he kept quiet long enough to live up to his own aphorism, “it is better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak up and remove all doubt.” By the time he was ready to do more than observe and vote, he had such a command of the process that many others turned to him for help in crafting and promoting their own legislation. Though his Whig party was a shrinking minority, Lincoln’s efforts at leadership did much to help move their agenda through the bicameral Assembly.
During this same time, he also sought and obtained a license to practice law in the state of Illinois. In 1837, both the capital of the state and the man himself relocated to Springfield. There Abraham Lincoln formed a law partnership with an old acquaintance from his time in the militia. In his time as a prairie lawyer, Lincoln would participate in over 5,100 cases. Among his most notable was the defense of an accused murderer, acquitted after a witness who claimed to have seen the crime by moonlight was impeached with an almanac entry indicating the Moon was in an unsuitable position to provide illumination on the night in question. He also successfully defended a railroad against claims that its bridge over the Mississippi was a hazard to navigation. This established a precedent that advanced the cause of economic development extending westward.
Of course, modernity knows Abraham Lincoln best as a critic of slavery and a wartime President who restored the United States after our nation’s only great schism. He had already served one term in the U.S. House of Representatives, but he failed to win election to the U.S. Senate. After a lifetime of promoting obedience to the law and working with traditional political institutions, Lincoln abruptly embraced challenges to the status quo. He found the infamous decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford to be deeply offensive. He recognized that many state governments were unlikely to yield to the moral objections against slavery and abandon that institution in his lifetime. He lent his intellectual force to an increasingly fiery abolitionist movement.
At the same time, Abraham Lincoln became a prominent figure in the emergent Republican Party. He asserted that the compromises perpetuating slavery were failures of the Founding Fathers and all subsequent American leadership. With oratorical skills honed before countless juries then popularized by events like the Lincoln-Douglas debates, he developed a reputation as just the sort of man who could catapult this fledgeling party into a strong position on the national stage. After winning the Republican nomination for President of the United States, he also emerged victorious in an unusual race that saw the Electoral College of 1860 split four ways.
Before the year was out, secession had begun. The newborn Confederacy had the benefit of a more skilled body of officers, but its largely agrarian economy would prove an enormous liability. The great cities of the north, with their industrial capacity, higher standards of education, and technological sophistication would provide a power base that the south could not hope to equal. The Union Navy acted quickly to inhibit trade, doing much to strangle the Confederate economy that was so dependent on cotton exports. Quelling the fighting spirit of the rebels was another matter. President Lincoln went through one senior commander after another, frequently unsatisfied with his generals’ ability and/or willingness to undertake offensive actions.
Ultimately, harsh action was required to restore the nation. Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman performed the heavy lifting that brought the Confederacy to the point of surrender. After years of bloody give and take, Grant’s masterful offensives dealt his enemies a string of painful defeats. Dealing out pain was also a hallmark of Sherman’s actions. Most remarkably, after securing the city of Atlanta under his control, his forces set fire to all government buildings. The resulting conflagration was the one of several he would ignite in order to devastate the cities of the south.
Abraham Lincoln himself became no stranger to harsh measures. His government suspended basic Constitutional rights in order to suppress disloyalty within the Union. He imprisoned Confederate sympathizers and even some opposition politicians without due process. He authorized military spending without Congressional approval. He fully supported the bloody and brutal tactics his most successful generals employed to end the conflict. Yet he was no barbarian. As forceful as he was in putting down the rebellion, his intentions were gentle for dealing with the south in the aftermath of the war.
John Wilkes Booth saw to it that history would never learn firsthand of Lincoln’s intentions for the defeated Confederacy. Formal surrender had occurred just days before the actor-turned-assassin put a bullet in the head of Abraham Lincoln. Yet Lincoln’s spirit would help to guide his successor in the restoration of the United States as a single coherent nation. Penalties for war crimes were only imposed on Confederate officers guilty of horrific abuses, like the deliberate starvation of Union captives in the Andersonville prison. Even the President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, was a free man no longer facing treason charges within four years of his initial arrest. Both Abraham Lincoln and his successor, Andrew Johnson, understood that healing the nation required viewing even the most ardent rebels as U.S. citizens, entitled to the same levels of fairness and respect due any Yankee.
The consensus among historians is that Abraham Lincoln was one of our greatest Presidents. Though his time in that office was dominated by the Civil War, his success at restoring the Union was an incredible feat achieved in the face of growing public unrest about the costs of war. Subsequent leaders have made pretense of facing “an existential threat” to the United States of America, but Lincoln confronted an actual threat that grave. His willingness to do what had to be done, knowing full well what it was like to arrive on a battlefield littered with corpses, holding in his heart a passionate commitment to due process and the rule of law, is what made him a truly exceptional leader. A far cry from twenty men with boxcutters, he had to deal with the loss of nearly half of the nation, and deal with it he surely did.